CLASSIFICATION OF THE FIRE DAMPERS DEDICATED FOR MULTI-ZONE FIRE VENTILATION SYSTEMS AND INSTALLED IN RIGID SHAFTS
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The multiplicity of different regulations makes it difficult to understand the essence of the solutions cited in research standards. When using them, you must always remember about their primary goal, which is to ensure fire safety.
Test standard EN 1366-10 allows testing of products in various types of fastening constructions. It is also possible to examine the product outside the building partitions. In both cases, installed dampers can be tested in horizontal or vertical position. Examples of tests for the vertical orientation of the damper are presented in Figure 1.
As stated in the EN 12101-8 standard, the fire ventilation cut-off damper located inside the test furnace, in which the fire zone is simulated, is tested for its ability to open and remain open to remove smoke. The cut-off damper located on the unheated side - simulating an adjacent fire zone, is tested for its ability to remain closed. At the same time, it should keep smoke leaks below the assumed value of 200m3/hm2 of the partition surface.
The described examples are shown in Figure 1 as A and B. In addition, the damper should be tested on each side, identically for A and B. In total, such a damper is tested 4 times for closing and opening, and for fire on both sides of the fire separation.
For configuration C, the test should be started when the damper inside the furnace is in the closed position and the damper outside the furnace in the open position. This test shows the effectiveness of both the cut-off damper located inside the fire zone and the damper located outside this zone. Fire ventilation cut-off damper located inside the furnace should move to the open position, and the cut-off damper outside should move to the closed position. In total, 2 products will undergo a single fire test.
It must be remembered that the EN 12101-8 standard indicates that the use of the product should be related to the location and method of assembly, taking into account the direct application of the results of the fire test. In this case, let us recall the paragraphs of the standards that relate to the direct application of the results for our research examples.
The concept of the shaft can be found in the PN-EN 1366-10 + A1: 2017-05 standard: "Fire resistance tests of utility installations - Part 10: Cut-off dampers for smoke control systems", published in Polish. As we can read in paragraph 9, which tells about the direct scope of application of the test results, the cut-off damper for multi-zone smoke control systems can be used, among others in installation shafts made in the building, ducts and walls in reinforced concrete structure or aerated concrete. They are presented in Figure 1, in examples A and B and corresponding to them use in the building is shown in figure 2.
"Cut-off dampers for multi-zone smoke control systems may be used in installation shafts (made on the site), reinforced concrete ducts or walls made of aerated concrete, provided that the tested cut-off damper for multi-zone smoke control systems was installed in a duct or wall made from materials of lower density and thickness (e.g. plates or steel sheet), as well as provided that the thickness of the reinforced/aerated concrete structure corresponds to the data for fastening structures, given in EN 1363-1 and EN 1363-2 for the required time classification. Appropriate fireproof fasteners adapted to the materials should be used. " [Quote: PN-EN 1366-10 + A1: 2017-05: "Fire resistance tests for utility installations - Part 10: Cut-off dampers for smoke control systems"]
In order for the cut-off damper to be installed e.g. in a rigid wall or shaft, it must be tested in the fixing structure according to PN-EN 1363-1 "Fire resistance tests - Part 1: General requirements". This standard gives examples of dimensions and assumed fire resistance for flexible and rigid fastening structures. The dampers tested in such constructions receive the vew classification.
Independently, PN-EN 1366-10 + A1: 2017-5, paragraph 9.7 addresses the issue of using a cut-off damper for multi-zone smoke spreading systems in smoke exhaust ducts, e.g. self-supporting smoke exhaust ducts made of fireproof panels. In this case, the ducts on which the damper is mounted should be tested according to EN 1366-8 or EN 1366-9 and classified according to EN 13501-4, e.g. EI120 (ho i↔o) S1500multi. For the ducts in question a certificate of constancy of performance for compliance with EN 12101-7 should be issued. At the same time, the manufacturer of such duct is obliged to issue a Declaration of Performance for its solution. The damper mounted on such a duct is shown in Figure 1 in Example C and the corresponding use in a building is shown in Figure 3.
"Cut-off dampers for multi-zone smoke control systems may be used in smoke exhaust ducts tested in accordance with EN 1366-8 and EN 1366-9, made of materials of the same density as those tested or made of the same materials, but with higher density or thickness. Application is not possible when surface protection materials are changed. For the surface finish of the cut-off dampers, paints used to cover the surface of the test or smoke exhaust duct must be used. " [Quote: PN-EN 1366-10 + A1: 2017-05: "Fire resistance tests for utility installations - Part 10: Cut-off dampers for smoke control systems"]
The EN 1366-10 standard clearly distinguishes the use of fire dampers for multi-zone fire ventilation systems mounted on reinforced concrete ducts or made of aerated concrete and those installed on ducts made of prefabricated fireproof panels.
The dampers classified as EI120 (vew i ↔o) S1500 C10 000 AAmulti can be used, among others in walls and shafts made of reinforced concrete or aerated concrete.
The dampers classified as EI120 (ved i↔o) S1500 C10 000 AAmulti can be used on smoke exhaust ducts (e.g. self-supporting smoke exhaust ducts made of fire resistant panels), if such ducts have undergone appropriate fire tests and have relevant documents allowing for use in buildings.